IMS1704 Organisations & Processes , Unit Information Guide (Semester 1, 2006)

Chief Examiner Dr Adi Prananto
Caulfield : Dr Adi Prananto

This unit introduces students to the processes and structures on which organisations and businesses base their activities to achieve organisational goals. Students will acquire an understanding of the range of organisational processes that may be encountered in professional practice. Students will also gain an understanding of the role of organisational information in supporting and implementing those processes and the role of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in improving organisational processes. Students will use a range of tools for analysing, mapping and documenting organisational processes and will gain an appreciation of various social, technical, cultural, political, and economic influences on organisational environments and how those environments effect change in organisational activities.

Topics include:

  • The nature of organizations - for businesses, services sector, government, health, communities, not-for-profit etc
  • The concept of an organisational process
  • Types of organisational processes:
  • Transactional (buy, sell, receive, lend...)
  • Scheduling of production activities
  • Order management (works and finished goods)
  • Billing
  • New product development
  • Support processes (e.g. Mgmt, planning, control)

  • Information flows and documents which support, enable, facilitate and record organisational processes
  • Tools for process mapping and documentation. One of the following in detail with a brief overview of the others:
  • System flowcharts
  • Functional decomposition hierarchies
  • Event Driven Process Models
  • Event lists and DFDs
  • Use Cases
  • Entity Life Histories
  • ICT support for organisational processes
  • Introductory organisational behaviour (social, technical, cultural, political, and economic influences) and its impact on organisational processes
  • The management of change in organisational processes

    Objectives Knowledge and Understanding

    C1. To understand and appreciate the nature of different types of contemporary organisations across business, government, community and not-for-profit sectors

    C2. To understand the concept of an organisational process

    C3. To understand how organisations and businesses organise their activities to achieve organisational goals

    C4. To understand the types of organisational processes used to achieve particular aims and objectives

    C5. To appreciate and evaluate the range of tools and techniques available for documenting core business processes

    C6. To understand the information needs, information flows and documents which represent core business processes

    C7. To understand and appreciate social, technical, cultural, political, and economic influences and how they can affect the design, implementation and management of organisational processes

    Attitudes, Values and Beliefs

    A1. To appreciate the role of learning as a support process

    A2. To appreciate the interconnected nature of business processes and the impact of change within an entire organisation and across organisational boundaries

    A3. To appreciate the role of information technology in supporting and optimising the provision of organisational processes

    Practical Skills

    P1. To be able to analyse, map and document core business processes

    P2. To appreciate the information needs, information flows and documents which represent core business processes

    Prerequisites There are no prerequisites for this unit.

    Unit relationships IMS1704 is a core unit of the BIS degree and an elective of the BITS degree. It is a prerequisite for IMS2704. There are no prerequisites for this unit.
    Texts and software

    Required text(s)

    No textbook is required for this unit. However, students are expected to read from (but not limited to) the list provided in the "recommended reading" section.

    Text books are available from the Monash University Book Shops. Availability from other suppliers cannot be assured. The Bookshop orders texts in specifically for this unit. You are advised to purchase your text book early.

    Hardware requirements:

    Students studying off-campus are required to have the minimum system configuration specified by the faculty as a condition of accepting admission, and regular Internet access. On-campus students, and those studying at supported study locations may use the facilities available in the computing labs. Information about computer use for students is available from the ITS Student Resource Guide in the Monash University Handbook. You will need to allocate up to n hours per week for use of a computer, including time for newsgroups/discussion groups.

    Recommended reading


    • Ancona, D.G., Kochan, T.A., Maanen, J.V., Westney, E.D., Scully, M.A. (2003). Managing for the Future: Organisational Behavior and Processes. NY: South-Western Pub.
    • Boddy, D., Boonstra, A., and Kennedy, G. (2005). Using Information Systems to rethink business processes. in Managing Information Systems: An Organizational Perspective (2nd ed.), Prentice Hall, Essex.
    • Croxton, K. L. (2003). The Order Fulfillment Process. The International Journal of Logistics Management, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 19-33.
    • Croxton, K.L., García-Dastugue, S. J. Lambert, D.M. and Rogers, D. S. (2001). The Supply Chain Management Processes," The International Journal of Logistics Management, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 13-36.
    • Daft, R.L. (2000). Organisation Theory and Design. (7th ed). South - Western College Publishing.
    • Davenport, T.H. (1993), Implementing process innovation with Information Technology. In Process Innovation: Reengineering Work through Information Technology, Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, pp. 199-220..
    • Davenport, T.H., Hammer, M. and Metsisto T.J. (1989). How Executives Can Shape Their Company's Information Systems. Harvard Business Review, Vol. 67, No. 2, pp. 130-134.
    • Davenport, T.H. and Beers M.C. (1995). Managing Information about Processes. Journal of Management Information Systems, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 57-80.
    • Davenport, T.H. and Short J.E. (1990). The New Industrial Engineering: Information Technology and Business Process Redesign. Sloan Management Review, Vol. 31, No. 4, pp. 11-27.
    • Gelinas, U.J., Sutton, S.G. and Fedorowicz, J. (2004). Business Processes and Information Technology. South-Western, Thomson Learning, Mason, OH.
    • Gibson, J.L. (Editor), Ivancevich, J.M. (Editor).(2002). James H., Jr Donnelly (Editor), Robert Konopaske (Editor). Organisations: Behavior, Structure, Processes (11th ed). McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
    • Goldsby, T.J. and Garcíia-Dastugue S.J. (2003). The Manufacturing Flow Process. The International Journal of Logisties Management, Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 33-52.
    • Gunasekaran, A. and Nath B. (1997). The Role of Information Technology in Business Process Reengineering. International Journal of Production Economics, Vol. 50, No. 2/3, pp. 91-104.
    • Hall, R.H. (2001). Organisations: Structures, Processes, and Outcomes. (8th ed). Prentice Hall.
    • Hammer, M. (1990). Reengineering Work: Don't Automate, Obliterate. Harvard Business Review, Vol. 68, No. 4, pp.
    • Hammer, M. (1997) /The end of the organizational chart. In Beyond Reengineering: How Processes-Centered Organization is Changing Our Work and Our Lives,/ HarperCollins, NY, pp. 116-137.
    • Hammer, M. (2001). /The Superefficient Company./ Harvard Business Review, 77(6), pp. 108-118.
    • Laguna, M & Marklund, J. (2005). Chapter 1: Introduction to business process design. in Business Process Modelling, Simulation and Design, Prentice Hall, NJ, pp. 1-20.
    • Pall, G.A. (2000). The Process-Centered Enterprise: The power of commitments. St. Lucie Press, New York.
    • Schermerhorn, J.R. Jr., Hunt, J.G. Osborn, R.N. (2002) Organisational Behavior. (8th Ed). Wiley.
    • Wood, J., Wallace, J. and Zeffane, R.M. (2001). Organisational Behaviour: A Global Perspective. 2nd Edn. John Wiley & Sons, Milton, Queensland, Australia.


    Library access You may need to access the Monash library either personally to be able to satisfactorily complete the subject.  Be sure to obtain a copy of the Library Guide, and if necessary, the instructions for remote access from the library website.
    Study resources

    Study resources for IMS1704 are:

    The IMS1704 web site on MUSO, where lecture slides, weekly tutorial requirements, assignment specifications, past exam papers example and supplementary materials will be posted. In addition,
    Students are expected to find appropriate references for the various topics discussed in the lectures and assignments using the facilities provided by the Monash University Libraries.

    Structure and organisation



    Study Guide

    Key Dates

    1 Overview of Organisations & Processes
    2 Some Organisational Theories
    3 Fundamental Organisational Processes
    4 ICT and Organisational Processes
    5 Using ICT as a Source of Strategic Competitive Advantage
    6 Documenting Business Processes
    7 Sales & Revenue Collection
    8 Procurement Processes Critical essay is due for submission at the end of week 8
    9 Integrated Production Processes
    10 Sales & Revenue Collection
    11 Information Systems Control & Audit
    12 Technology & Process Innovation Research Report to be submitted at the end of week 12
    13 Review of the Semester

    The timetable for on-campus classes for this unit can be viewed in Allocate+


    Assessment for the unit consists of three assignments with a weighting of 40% and an examination with a weighting of 60%. Read this section VERY carefully.

    Three Assignment activities (total assessment value 40%)
    Individual Critical Essay (15%), Research Report - Group Assessment (20%) & Tutorial discussion participation (5%)
    Details of the assignments and their submission dates will be posted on the unit website at the end of week 3 of semester 1 2006.

    Formal supervised assessment (60%).
    The formal supervised assessment for this unit will be a three hour “closed book” examination scheduled in the formal examination period following the last week of semester. You are required to be available for the exam and for any necessary supplementary assessment procedures until the end of the assessment period. Alternative times for exams will not be approved without formal application through the Faculty Office on the appropriate form. Medical Practitioner certification of a significant illness, or equivalent evidence is required.


    • Assignments in this unit are no less important than those of other units. Your inability to manage your time or computing resources will not be accepted as a valid excuse. (Several assignments falling due at the same time is often unavoidable.)
    • Backup copies are required to be made of all assignments and retained for 12 months, in case of loss.
    • Hardware failures are not normally recognised as a valid reason for obtaining an extension or handing in a late assignment.


    Assessment Policy

    To pass this unit you must:

    The 40% rule applies to units and determines the final result for a student where the student's performance in either the examination or assignment component of the unit is unsatisfactory. Students need to be aware of the 40% rule which is:

    In order to pass a unit, a student must gain all of the following:

    • at least 40% of the marks available for the examination component, if any: i.e. the final examination and any tests performed under exam conditions, taken as a whole
    • at least 40% of the marks available for the assignment component: i.e. the assignments and any other assessment tasks (such as presentations) taken as a whole
    • at least 50% of the total marks for the unit
    Where a student gains less than 40% for either the examination or assignment component, the final result for the unit will be no greater than ‘44-N’.

    Your score for the unit will be calculated by:

    Assessment Requirements


    Due Date


    Individual Critical Essay the end of week 8 15 %
    Research Report the end of week 12 20 %
    Tutorial Discussion Participation on going 5 %
    Examination 3 hour(s), closed book Exam period starts 5th June. 60 %

    Assignment specifications will be made available on the IMS1704 MUSO Unit Web Site Assignment Page at the end of week 3 of semester 1 2006. Information about assignments will be published on the Unit's Notices Newsgroup.

    Assignment Submission Methods

    All printed assignment work must be word processed and meet the standards set out in the assignment, and must include an appropriate signed assignment cover page. Assignment must be stapled at the upper left hand corner (no ring binding, no plastic folder, no plastic map).

    Assignments should be received at your allocated tutor’s pigeon-hole on or before the due date. In the absence of other instructions, all assignments are to be submitted to your tutor at the end of the week designated as the submission week.

    Extensions and late submissions

    Late submission of assignments

    Late assignments submitted without an approved extension may be accepted (up to one week late) at the discretion of your lecturer, but will be penalised at the rate of 10% of total assignment marks per day (including weekends). Example:
    Total marks available for the assignment = 100 marks
    Marks received for the assignment = 70 marks
    Marks deducted for 2 days late submission (20% of 100) = 20 marks
    Final mark received for assignment = 50 marks

    This policy is strict because comments or guidance will be given on assignments as they are returned, and sample solutions may also be published and distributed, after assignment marking or with the returned assignment. 


    It is your responsibility to structure your study program around assignment deadlines, family, work and other commitments. Factors such as normal work pressures, vacations, etc. are seldom regarded as appropriate reasons for granting extensions. 

    If you believe that your assignment will be delayed because of circumstances beyond your control such as illness, you should apply for an extension prior to the due date. Requests for extensions must be made in writing or email to the unit controller at least four days before the due date. You will be asked to forward original medical certificates in cases of illness, and may be asked to provide other forms of documentation where necessary. When an extension is requested close to the due date, a copy of the unfinished assignment must be submitted. A substantial amount of work on the assignment must be displayed before any extension request will be considered. A copy of the email or other written communication of an extension must be attached to the assignment submission.

    Grading of assessment

    Assignments, and the unit, will be marked and allocated a grade according to the following scale:

    HD High Distinction - very high levels of achievement, demonstrated knowledge and understanding, skills in application and high standards of work encompassing all aspects of the tasks.
    In the 80+% range of marks for the assignment.
    D Distinction - high levels of achievement, but not of the same standards. May have a weakness in one particular aspect, or overall standards may not be quite as high.
    In the 70-79% range.
    C Credit - sound pass displaying good knowledge or application skills, but some weaknesses in the quality, range or demonstration of understanding.
    In the 60-69% range.
    P Pass - acceptable standard, showing an adequate basic knowledge, understanding or skills, but with definite limitations on the extent of such understanding or application. Some parts may be incomplete.
    In the 50-59% range.
    N Not satisfactory -  failure to meet the basic requirements of the assessment.
    Below 50%.

    We will aim to have assignment results made available to you within two to three weeks after assignment receipt.

    Feedback Feedback to you

    You will receive feedback on your work and progress in this unit. This feedback may be provided through your participation in tutorials and class discussions, as well as through your assignment submissions. It may come in the form of individual advice, marks and comments, or it may be provided as comment or reflection targeted at the group. It may be provided through personal interactions, such as interviews and on-line forums, or through other mechanisms such as on-line self-tests and publication of grade distributions.

    Feedback from you

    You will be asked to provide feedback to the Faculty through a Unit Evaluation survey at the end of the semester. You may also be asked to complete surveys to help teaching staff improve the unit and unit delivery. Your input to such surveys is very important to the faculty and the teaching staff in maintaining relevant and high quality learning experiences for our students.

    And if you are having problems

    It is essential that you take action immediately if you realise that you have a problem with your study. The semester is short, so we can help you best if you let us know as soon as problems arise. Regardless of whether the problem is related directly to your progress in the unit, if it is likely to interfere with your progress you should discuss it with your lecturer or a Community Service counsellor as soon as possible.

    Plagiarism and cheating

    Plagiarism and cheating are regarded as very serious offences. In cases where cheating  has been confirmed, students have been severely penalised, from losing all marks for an assignment, to facing disciplinary action at the Faculty level. While we would wish that all our students adhere to sound ethical conduct and honesty, I will ask you to acquaint yourself with Student Rights and Responsibilities and the Faculty regulations that apply to students detected cheating as these will be applied in all detected cases.

    In this University, cheating means seeking to obtain an unfair advantage in any examination or any other written or practical work to be submitted or completed by a student for assessment. It includes the use, or attempted use, of any means to gain an unfair advantage for any assessable work in the unit, where the means is contrary to the instructions for such work. 

    When you submit an individual assessment item, such as a program, a report, an essay, assignment or other piece of work, under your name you are understood to be stating that this is your own work. If a submission is identical with, or similar to, someone else's work, an assumption of cheating may arise. If you are planning on working with another student, it is acceptable to undertake research together, and discuss problems, but it is not acceptable to jointly develop or share solutions unless this is specified by your lecturer. 

    Intentionally providing students with your solutions to assignments is classified as "assisting to cheat" and students who do this may be subject to disciplinary action. You should take reasonable care that your solution is not accidentally or deliberately obtained by other students. For example, do not leave copies of your work in progress on the hard drives of shared computers, and do not show your work to other students. If you believe this may have happened, please be sure to contact your lecturer as soon as possible.

    Cheating also includes taking into an examination any material contrary to the regulations, including any bilingual dictionary, whether or not with the intention of using it to obtain an advantage.

    Plagiarism involves the false representation of another person's ideas, or findings, as your own by either copying material or paraphrasing without citing sources. It is both professional and ethical to reference clearly the ideas and information that you have used from another writer. If the source is not identified, then you have plagiarised work of the other author. Plagiarism is a form of dishonesty that is insulting to the reader and grossly unfair to your student colleagues.



    Notices related to the unit during the semester will be placed on the Notices Newsgroup in the Unit Website. Check this regularly. Failure to read the Notices newsgroup is not regarded as grounds for special consideration.

    Consultation Times

    Monday 11.00am-12.00pm. Other times strictly by appointment only.

    If direct communication with your unit adviser/lecturer or tutor outside of consultation periods is needed you may contact the lecturer and/or tutors at:

    Dr Adi Prananto
    Phone +61 3 990 32600
    Fax +61 3 990 31077

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    All email communication to you from your lecturer will occur through your Monash student email address. Please ensure that you read it regularly, or forward your email to your main address. Also check that your contact information registered with the University is up to date in My.Monash.

    Last updated: Feb 27, 2006